Suffixes:  word endings (ed, ing)

Prefixes and suffixes are structural changes added to root words.

Common endings that begin with a vowel (-er, -est, -ing, -ed, able) are usually sounded as syllables. A syllable is a vowel or a group of letters containing a vowel sound which together form a pronounceable unit. All words include at least one vowel.

Spelling Rule: (Applies to words that have one syllable). When a short vowel is followed by one consonant at the end of the root word, double the last consonant and add (ed) or (ing).

To state this rule simply; “short vowel, one consonant, double” (It needs a friend)

Example: The letter “u” is a short vowel in the word run. It is followed by one consonant (n), therefore the last letter (n) is doubled - running.
If the short vowel is followed by two consonants (mp), as in the word jump, the last consonant is not doubled - jumping.

Read these words (verbs)
“Verbs" are action words or words that show movement

beg begged begging
box boxed* boxing*
clip clipped clipping
dim dimmed dimming
drag dragged dragging
drop dropped dropping
fax faxed* faxing*
fix fixed* fixing*
flap flapped flapping
grab grabbed grabbing
grin grinned grinning
grip gripped gripping
hop hopped hopping
hug hugged hugging
jog jogged jogging
mix mixed* mixing*
pat patted patting
plan planned planning
plug plugged plugging
shop shopped shopping
stop stopped stopping
tag tagged tagging
run   running
sit   sitting


*Words (verbs) ending with the letter “x” are not doubled because the letter “x” is a blend of two consonants “ks

If the short vowel is followed by two or more consonants (mp), as in the word jump, the last consonant is not doubled - jumping.
back backed backing
bang banged banging
end ended ending
hand handed handing
help helped helping
itch itched itching
jump jumped jumping
kick kicked kicking
kill killed killing
rest rested resting
sing   singing
wish wished wishing


Dictation/Spelling Practice for Suffixes

Do you recall the spelling rule regarding the root word + ending?

     “short vowel, one consonant, double” (the last consonant)
     “short vowel, two or more consonants, do not double" (the last consonant)

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dog image

Read these sentences.

Create a sentence that includes at least one base word + (ed), (ing). Your writing should reflect good penmanship, proper spacing, and correct usage of upper and lowercase letters. Remember all sentences begin with a capital letter and end with a period (.), question mark (?), or exclamation point (!).





This portion of the lesson is meant for exposure.

The student should revisit this page after he/she has completed
lesson (#22, long “e”). Mastery in regard to reading should easily
be achieved after the student has completed all the lessons.

The suffixes (–ly) added to a base/root word changes its meaning. Sometimes it changes the way the word is used. Words ending in “–ly” normally tell how or how often something is done.

Words ending with the suffix –ly (sounds like long e)

amply dimly gladly openly shortly
badly distinctly grimly partly simply
barely doubtfully hardly plainly slowly
bluntly entirely hotly possibly softly
briefly exactly justly practically swiftly
calmly faintly kindly probably tenderly
clearly firmly lately promptly terribly
closely flatly loudly purely thinly
costly finally lowly quickly totally
critically fondly mainly quietly truly
deadly frankly mostly rarely unlikely
dearly freely nearly really usually
deeply gently oddly sadly warmly